How Wigs Are Made?

How Wigs Are Made

Table of Contents

Do you ever wonder how wigs are made? Well, get ready to dive into the fascinating world of wig production.

In this article, we will take you on a journey through the meticulous process of creating wigs. From the choice of materials to the intricate ventilation and knotting techniques, every step is essential in achieving the highest quality.

So, buckle up and prepare to discover the power behind the creation of these fashionable, cultural, and sometimes even life-changing accessories.

The role of wigs in fashion, culture, and medical contexts

You might be surprised by the variety of ways wigs are used in fashion, culture, and medical contexts.

In the world of fashion, wigs serve as a powerful tool for transformation. They can instantly change a person’s appearance, allowing them to experiment with different hairstyles, colors, and textures.

Wigs are also deeply rooted in cultural traditions, symbolizing status, identity, and heritage. From elaborate ceremonial wigs in African cultures to the iconic powdered wigs of the European aristocracy, they hold immense cultural significance.

Moreover, wigs play a vital role in the medical field, providing comfort and confidence to individuals suffering from hair loss due to conditions like cancer or alopecia.

With their ability to enhance beauty, preserve tradition, and restore self-esteem, wigs have become an essential element in the realm of fashion, culture, and healthcare.

Wig Materials

When it comes to wig making, there are various types of materials used to create these hairpieces.

The most common materials include natural hair, synthetic fibers, and blends of both.

Choosing the right material is of utmost importance as it determines the overall quality and purpose of the wig.

Types of materials used in wig making

There are various types of materials that are used in wig making. To create a powerful and stunning wig, one must consider the quality and characteristics of the materials used. Here are three key materials that are commonly used in wig making:

  1. Human Hair: The ultimate choice for a natural look, human hair wigs are crafted from real hair. They provide the most realistic appearance, allowing you to style and treat them just like your own hair.
  2. Synthetic Fibers: These wigs are made from man-made fibers that mimic the texture and appearance of natural hair. They are affordable, low-maintenance, and offer a wide range of styles and colors.
  3. Lace: Lace materials are used to create the most realistic hairline on a wig. Lace front wigs have a sheer lace panel at the front, giving the illusion of hair growing directly from the scalp.

Natural hair, synthetic fibers, and blends

To achieve a natural look, opt for wigs crafted from a blend of natural hair, synthetic fibers, and other materials. These wigs offer the perfect balance of realism and durability, allowing you to exude power and confidence in any setting.

Natural hair wigs are made from real human hair, meticulously sourced and processed to ensure a natural texture and appearance. Synthetic fibers, on the other hand, are created to mimic the look and feel of natural hair, offering a wide range of styles and colors to choose from.

Blending these two materials together creates a wig that is not only incredibly lifelike but also resistant to heat, humidity, and daily wear and tear. With a blend of natural hair, synthetic fibers, and other materials, you can confidently embrace your power and conquer the world.

The significance of choosing the right material for specific purposes

For specific purposes, it’s important to choose the right material that suits your needs and enhances the desired outcome. When it comes to wigs, selecting the appropriate material is crucial for achieving the power and impact you desire.

Here are three key reasons why choosing the right material is significant:

  1. Durability: Opting for high-quality materials ensures that your wig will withstand the test of time, maintaining its power and impact for longer periods. Synthetic fibers and blends are often more durable than natural hair, making them a great choice for long-term use.
  2. Versatility: Different materials offer varying levels of flexibility and styling options. Synthetic fibers are easy to maintain and retain their shape, while natural hair provides a more realistic look and can be styled using heat tools. By selecting the right material, you can achieve the desired style and versatility you seek.
  3. Comfort: Comfort is essential when wearing a wig. Synthetic fibers are often lighter and more breathable, providing a comfortable experience throughout the day. Natural hair wigs can also be comfortable, but they may require more maintenance to keep them feeling and looking their best.

Preparation of Hair or Fibers

When preparing hair or fibers for wig production, there are several key points to consider.

Firstly, sourcing human hair or synthetic fibers is a crucial step in determining the quality and authenticity of the final product.

Secondly, sorting, cleaning, and processing the hair or fibers is essential to ensure that they are free from impurities and ready for use in the wig-making process.

Lastly, the origin and quality of the hair play a significant role in determining the durability, appearance, and overall satisfaction of the finished wig.

Sourcing human hair or synthetic fibers

Human hair is typically sourced from hair donors or hair salons for the production of wigs. To meet the demands of a powerful audience, it is important to understand the sourcing process. Here are three key points to consider:

  1. Hair Donors: Individuals can choose to donate their hair for wig production. This can be a powerful act of kindness, as it helps those experiencing hair loss regain their confidence. Donors must adhere to specific guidelines regarding the length and condition of their hair.
  2. Hair Salons: Hair salons also play a significant role in the sourcing process. They collect hair from clients during haircuts or styling sessions. This allows the salon to contribute to the wig-making industry while providing a service to their customers.
  3. Ethical Considerations: It is essential to prioritize ethical sourcing practices. This includes ensuring that the hair is obtained with the consent of the donors and that fair compensation is provided. Additionally, efforts should be made to avoid sourcing hair from vulnerable populations or engaging in exploitative practices.

Understanding the sourcing of human hair for wig production empowers you to make informed decisions and support ethical practices within the industry.

Sorting, cleaning, and processing the hair or fibers

Hair sourced for wig production goes through a process of sorting, cleaning, and processing to ensure quality and suitability.

Once the hair arrives at the wig manufacturing facility, it is meticulously sorted based on length, texture, and color. Skilled technicians carefully examine each strand to remove any damaged or unusable pieces.

The selected hair then undergoes a thorough cleaning process, where it is washed with specialized shampoos and conditioners to remove impurities and residue.

After cleaning, the hair is carefully dried and prepared for processing. This involves removing any remaining tangles or knots and ensuring that the hair is in perfect condition for further treatment.

Finally, the hair is processed to achieve the desired texture, whether it be straight, curly, or wavy.

This meticulous sorting, cleaning, and processing ensures that only the highest quality hair is used in the production of wigs, providing you with a product that exudes power and confidence.

The role of hair origin and quality in wig production

The origin and quality of the hair play a crucial role in the production of high-quality wigs. When it comes to creating a wig that exudes power and sophistication, every aspect matters. Here’s why hair origin and quality are essential:

  1. Ethically sourced hair: High-quality wigs are made from hair that is ethically sourced, ensuring that the hair is obtained through fair trade practices and without exploiting individuals. This commitment to ethical sourcing adds a layer of integrity to the final product.
  2. Premium hair origin: The best wigs are crafted using hair sourced from regions known for their superior hair quality. For example, hair from countries like Brazil, India, and Vietnam is highly sought after due to its natural strength, shine, and texture.
  3. Longevity and styling versatility: When high-quality hair is used in wig production, the resulting wigs are more durable, allowing for extended wear without losing their natural look or feel. Additionally, premium hair can be styled and customized just like natural hair, providing endless possibilities for the wearer to express their personal power and style.

Wig Cap Construction

How Wigs Are Made

When it comes to wig caps, there are various options to consider. You can choose from different types such as lace, monofilament, and machine-made caps.

Additionally, cap sizing and customization options are available to ensure a perfect fit. It is important to select a well-constructed base as it not only enhances comfort but also ensures durability in the long run.

Different types of wig caps (e.g., lace, monofilament, machine-made

There are various types of wig caps, such as lace, monofilament, and machine-made. These different cap constructions offer unique benefits and cater to various preferences.

  1. Lace wig caps are popular for their natural-looking hairline. The cap is made with a sheer lace material that allows for a realistic scalp appearance, giving the illusion of hair growing directly from the scalp. This type of cap is lightweight and breathable, making it comfortable to wear for long periods.
  2. Monofilament wig caps feature a fine, sheer mesh material that mimics the look of a natural scalp. Each hair strand is individually hand-tied onto the cap, allowing for versatile styling options and a more realistic overall appearance. This cap construction is ideal for those seeking a natural, undetectable look.
  3. Machine-made wig caps are constructed using a sewing machine and are the most affordable option. The hair is sewn onto the cap in wefts, providing a secure and durable construction. While not as versatile as lace or monofilament caps, machine-made caps are a great choice for those on a budget or looking for a quick and easy option.

Whether you prefer the natural look of lace, the versatility of monofilament, or the affordability of machine-made, there is a wig cap type that suits your needs and desires for powerful hair transformation.

Cap sizing and customization options

To ensure a perfect fit, you can customize the sizing of your wig cap. Wig caps come in various sizes, ranging from petite to large, ensuring that there is an option for everyone.

When selecting the cap size, it is crucial to take accurate measurements of your head circumference and consult the manufacturer’s size chart. If you find that the standard sizes don’t match your measurements, don’t worry! Many wig caps offer customization options.

You can adjust the cap size by using adjustable straps or Velcro tabs, which allow you to tighten or loosen the cap for a snug fit. Additionally, some wig caps offer stretchable materials that adapt to your head shape, providing maximum comfort and security.

The importance of a well-constructed base for comfort and durability

Now that you’ve learned about cap sizing and customization options, let’s dive into the importance of a well-constructed base for comfort and durability.

When it comes to wigs, the base serves as the foundation, providing the structure and support necessary for a natural-looking and long-lasting wig.

  1. Comfort: A well-constructed base ensures a snug and secure fit, preventing any discomfort or shifting during wear. It is designed to conform to the shape of your head, providing maximum comfort throughout the day.
  2. Durability: A sturdy base made from high-quality materials increases the lifespan of your wig. It can withstand the rigors of daily use, maintaining its shape and integrity over time.
  3. Breathability: A properly constructed base allows for proper ventilation, preventing excess heat and moisture buildup. This promotes a healthier scalp and prevents any discomfort or irritation.

Ventilation and Knotting

When it comes to attaching individual hair or fibers to the wig cap, there are various techniques that are used to ensure a secure and natural-looking result.

Knotting is one of the most common methods, where each strand of hair is carefully tied onto the cap using a specialized needle. This meticulous process allows for precise control over the hairline and parting, resulting in a realistic and seamless appearance.

How individual hair or fibers are attached to the wig cap

Attach the individual hair or fibers to the wig cap using a specialized technique. This process ensures that each strand is securely fastened and creates a natural-looking appearance. Here’s how it’s done:

  1. Ventilation: Each hair is carefully hand-knotted onto the wig cap using a ventilating needle. This technique allows for precise placement and creates a seamless integration with the cap.
  2. Single Knotting: Each hair is individually knotted onto the cap using a single knot technique. This ensures maximum security and prevents shedding.
  3. Directional Placement: The hairs are strategically placed in specific directions to mimic the natural growth pattern of real hair. This attention to detail adds to the realism of the wig.

By following these steps, wig makers are able to create high-quality wigs that look and feel incredibly realistic.

Techniques for knotting and securing hair

To achieve a secure and natural-looking wig, you’ll knot and secure each hair individually using specialized techniques. This meticulous process ensures that the hair stays in place and looks seamless, giving you the power to confidently rock your new wig.

The first technique is called single knotting, where a single hair strand is pulled through the wig cap and tied in a knot. This method is time-consuming but guarantees a natural appearance.

Another technique is double knotting, where two hair strands are looped through the cap and tied together in a double knot. This technique provides extra security, making sure the hair stays in place even during vigorous activities.

Lastly, there’s the split knot technique, where a single hair strand is split into two and each half is knotted separately, creating a more natural hairline.

These techniques, combined with skilled craftsmanship, result in a wig that exudes power and confidence.

Achieving a natural hairline and parting

Achieving a natural hairline and parting is essential for creating a realistic and seamless look with your wig. To achieve this, follow these three important steps:

  1. Choose the right wig: Look for wigs that have a lace front or hand-tied hairline. These types of wigs have individual hairs knotted onto a lace material, creating a more natural and realistic hairline.
  2. Customize the hairline: Once you have your wig, you can further customize the hairline by plucking a few hairs along the front edge. This helps create a more natural look by mimicking the gradual hair growth of a real scalp.
  3. Use makeup tricks: Applying a thin layer of foundation or concealer along the hairline and parting can help blend the wig with your natural skin tone, making it appear more seamless and natural.

Styling and Texture

When it comes to styling wigs, there are various methods you can use to achieve specific textures. Whether you prefer straight, wavy, or curly hair, you can easily customize the style to your liking.

Additionally, you have the freedom to personalize your wig by customizing the cut and length to suit your individual preferences.

Furthermore, if you want to enhance the realism of your wig, there are coloring and dyeing techniques available that can give it a natural appearance.

Styling methods for creating specific wig textures (e.g., straight, wavy, curly

There are different styling methods for creating specific wig textures, such as straight, wavy, or curly. These methods are essential in achieving the desired look and adding versatility to wigs.

Here are three powerful techniques used in wig styling:

  1. Heat Styling: Using heat tools like flat irons or curling wands, you can create sleek, straight styles or beautiful curls. By adjusting the temperature and the amount of time you apply heat, you can control the intensity of the texture.
  2. Wet Set Styling: This method involves setting the wig on rollers or using flexi rods after dampening it with water or setting lotion. Once dry, the wig is taken off the rollers, resulting in bouncy, defined curls or waves.
  3. Chemical Treatments: Some wigs can undergo chemical treatments like perming or relaxing to permanently alter the texture. This allows for long-lasting curls or straight styles, giving you the power to transform your look effortlessly.

Customizing wig styles, cuts, and lengths

To customize your wig style, you can choose from a variety of cuts and lengths that suit your personal preferences. Whether you desire a short, sleek bob or long, flowing locks, there are options available to empower you with the perfect look.

For a powerful and commanding presence, consider a sharp and angular cut that exudes strength and confidence. Alternatively, if you prefer a softer and more feminine style, opt for a layered cut with gentle waves that adds a touch of elegance to your appearance.

When it comes to length, shorter wigs can give you a bold and assertive look, while longer wigs can convey a sense of grace and sophistication.

With the ability to customize your wig style, you can truly embody the power and confidence you desire.

Coloring and dyeing techniques for realistic appearance

By using various coloring and dyeing techniques, you can achieve a more realistic appearance with your customized wig. The key to creating a natural look lies in the art of color blending.

Here are three effective techniques that will help you achieve the desired result:

  1. Root Shadowing: This technique involves adding a darker color to the roots of the wig, mimicking natural hair growth. It creates depth and dimension, making the wig look more natural.
  2. Highlighting and Lowlighting: By strategically adding lighter and darker shades throughout the wig, you can create the illusion of natural highlights and lowlights. This technique adds texture and movement to the hair, giving it a more lifelike appearance.
  3. Ombre and Balayage: These techniques involve blending different shades from top to bottom, creating a gradual transition of color. Ombre creates a bold and striking effect, while balayage gives a softer and more natural look.

With these coloring and dyeing techniques, you can transform your customized wig into a masterpiece that exudes power and confidence.

Quality Control

How Wigs Are Made

When it comes to quality control for wigs, there are several key points to consider.

First, inspecting and testing the finished wig is crucial to ensure that it meets the highest standards. This involves carefully examining the construction, checking for any loose strands or uneven parts, and conducting rigorous tests to ensure durability and comfort.

If any imperfections or issues are found, they must be promptly addressed to ensure that the final product meets the strict quality standards expected by customers.

Inspecting and testing the finished wig

After production, our team carefully inspects and tests the finished wig. This step is crucial to ensure that we deliver a product of the highest quality to our power-hungry customers like you. Here’s what our rigorous inspection and testing process entails:

  1. Visual Inspection: Every wig is meticulously examined to check for any flaws or imperfections. From the hair strands to the construction of the cap, we leave no stone unturned in our pursuit of perfection.
  2. Fit and Comfort Testing: We understand that power comes from feeling confident, so we make sure that each wig fits securely and comfortably on your head. Our team tests the wig’s adjustability, ensuring a snug fit without any discomfort.
  3. Styling and Durability Assessment: We put our wigs through rigorous styling tests to ensure that they can withstand the demands of your power-packed lifestyle. From heat resistance to maintaining their shape, our wigs are built to endure.

Rest assured, our inspection and testing process guarantees that you will receive a wig that exudes power and confidence in every strand.

Ensuring the wig meets quality standards

Rest assured that our meticulous inspection and testing process ensures that every wig meets the highest quality standards, giving you a product that exudes power and confidence.

Our team of experts carefully examines each wig, checking for any imperfections or inconsistencies. We pay close attention to the construction, ensuring that the wig is securely made with durable materials.

Our testing process involves rigorous trials to determine the wig’s durability and ability to withstand various conditions. We test the wig’s ability to hold its shape, resist tangling, and maintain its vibrant color.

Additionally, we conduct thorough quality checks to ensure the wig’s comfort and natural appearance. Each wig is meticulously inspected, leaving no room for compromise.

We take pride in delivering a product that empowers you with a sense of authority and strength.

Addressing any imperfections or issues

You’ll be pleased to know that any imperfections or issues with our wigs are promptly addressed and resolved by our dedicated team. We understand the importance of delivering a high-quality product that meets your standards.

Here’s how we ensure that any problems are taken care of efficiently:

  1. Thorough Inspection: Each wig undergoes a meticulous inspection process to identify any imperfections or manufacturing errors. This ensures that only the best quality wigs are delivered to our customers.
  2. Quick Resolution: If any issues are found, our team immediately takes action to resolve them. Whether it’s a minor flaw or a major concern, we prioritize addressing it promptly to provide you with a satisfactory solution.
  3. Customer Satisfaction: Our ultimate goal is to ensure your complete satisfaction. We value your feedback and take it seriously. If you encounter any problems with our wigs, rest assured that our team will work diligently to resolve them and leave you feeling empowered and confident.

Packaging and Distribution

When it comes to packaging wigs for shipment and retail, the process is meticulous and precise. Each wig is carefully placed in a protective box or bag to ensure it arrives at its destination in perfect condition.

Global distribution and availability of wigs have expanded exponentially in recent years, with online retailers offering a wide range of options to customers worldwide. Manufacturers and distributors work diligently to ensure that wigs reach consumers in good condition, using sturdy packaging materials and reliable shipping methods to minimize the risk of damage during transportation.

How wigs are packaged for shipment and retail

Wigs are typically packaged in plastic bags or boxes for shipment and retail. This ensures that the wigs remain protected during transportation and are presented neatly to the customers.

Here are three key aspects of how wigs are packaged:

  1. Protective Packaging: Wigs are carefully placed in plastic bags or boxes to shield them from dust, moisture, and potential damage during transit. The packaging is designed to maintain the wig’s shape and prevent tangling or frizzing of the hair fibers.
  2. Branding and Information: The packaging often includes the brand name, logo, and product information. This helps customers identify the brand and understand the specifications of the wig, such as the hair type, length, and style.
  3. Retail Display: Wigs packaged in boxes are often displayed on shelves or racks, allowing customers to easily browse and compare different styles. The packaging is designed to attract attention and create a powerful visual impact, enticing customers to explore the variety of wigs available.

Global distribution and availability

Global distribution and availability of wigs are influenced by factors such as demand, production capacity, and shipping logistics.

When it comes to wigs, availability varies across different regions and countries. Demand plays a crucial role in determining the distribution of wigs worldwide. Countries with a higher demand for wigs tend to have a more extensive distribution network.

Production capacity also affects distribution, as countries with advanced manufacturing facilities can produce more wigs and meet the demand.

Shipping logistics are essential for ensuring timely delivery of wigs to various destinations. Efficient transportation networks and streamlined customs processes contribute to the availability of wigs in different markets.

Ensuring wigs reach consumers in good condition

To ensure your wigs reach you in good condition, it’s important to handle them with care during shipping and storage. Here are three essential tips to help you preserve the quality of your wigs:

  1. Proper packaging: Ensure your wigs are packaged in a sturdy and protective box or bag. This will prevent any damage during transportation and storage. Use tissue paper or a wig stand to maintain their shape and prevent tangling.
  2. Climate control: Wigs are sensitive to extreme temperatures and humidity. Avoid exposing them to direct sunlight or storing them in damp areas. Optimal conditions for wig storage include a cool, dry place with good air circulation.
  3. Gentle handling: When handling your wigs, use a wide-toothed comb or wig brush to detangle them gently. Avoid excessive pulling or tugging, as it can cause hair breakage or loss. Additionally, avoid using excessive heat from styling tools, as it can damage the fibers.

Ethical Considerations

When it comes to the ethical concerns related to sourcing hair for wigs, there are several key points to consider.

Firstly, the origin of the hair and how it is obtained is of utmost importance. Many individuals may not be aware that some hair used for wigs is sourced from countries with questionable labor practices, potentially involving exploitation and forced labor.

Secondly, the conditions in which the hair is sourced must be taken into account, as some methods may involve animal cruelty or harm to the environment.

Lastly, transparency and accountability in the supply chain are essential to ensure that the hair used for wigs is ethically sourced and produced, providing consumers with peace of mind.

You should consider the ethical concerns when sourcing hair for wigs. Hair used in the production of wigs is often sourced from different locations around the world, and it is important to ensure that the hair is obtained in an ethical manner. Here are three key ethical concerns to be mindful of:

  1. Human rights: It is essential to ensure that the hair is sourced from individuals who have willingly donated or sold their hair, without any coercion or exploitation. This includes ensuring fair compensation and working conditions for those involved in the hair trade.
  2. Animal welfare: Some wigs are made from animal hair, such as mink or horsehair. It is crucial to verify that the animals were not subjected to inhumane treatment during the hair extraction process.
  3. Sustainability: Sourcing hair from sustainable and environmentally responsible sources is vital. This includes considering the impact on local ecosystems, waste management, and the use of chemicals during processing.

Sustainable practices in wig production

When it comes to sustainable practices in wig production, transparency and responsible manufacturing are key points to consider. You want to know where your wig is coming from and how it is made, and a transparent approach ensures that you have access to this information.

Responsible manufacturing, on the other hand, focuses on minimizing the environmental impact and promoting ethical treatment throughout the production process. By understanding and prioritizing these aspects, you can make informed choices and support wig brands that align with your values.

Transparency and responsible manufacturing

To ensure transparency and responsible manufacturing in the wig-making process, it’s important to research and choose companies that prioritize ethical sourcing and production methods. By doing so, you can support businesses that uphold high standards and contribute to a more sustainable industry.

Here are three key factors to consider when selecting a wig manufacturer:

  1. Ethical sourcing: Look for companies that obtain their hair from reputable sources, ensuring that the hair is acquired consensually and without exploitation. This includes sourcing hair from individuals who willingly sell or donate their hair, rather than from unethical practices such as forced labor or animal cruelty.
  2. Environmentally friendly production: Seek out manufacturers that implement eco-friendly practices throughout the production process. This includes using sustainable materials, minimizing waste and pollution, and prioritizing energy-efficient manufacturing methods.
  3. Fair labor practices: Choose companies that treat their employees ethically and provide fair working conditions. This means ensuring that workers are paid a living wage, have safe working environments, and are not subjected to exploitation or unfair labor practices.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Long Have Wigs Been Used in Fashion, Culture, and Medical Contexts?

Wigs have been used in fashion, culture, and medical contexts for centuries. They have provided a versatile and transformative tool for expressing power and identity, while also serving practical purposes like concealing hair loss or protecting natural hair.

What Are the Most Common Materials Used to Make Wigs?

The most common materials for making wigs are synthetic fibers and human hair. Synthetic fibers are cost-effective and easy to maintain, while human hair provides a more natural look and feel.

How Is the Hair or Fibers Prepared Before Being Used in Wig Production?

Before being used in wig production, the hair or fibers undergo a meticulous preparation process. Each strand is carefully cleaned, sorted, and sometimes treated to ensure the highest quality and durability in the final product.

What Are the Different Types of Wig Cap Constructions?

Different types of wig cap constructions include full lace, lace front, monofilament, and machine-made. Each cap construction offers unique benefits such as natural-looking hairlines, breathability, and versatility.

How Is the Ventilation and Knotting Process Done in Wig Production?

To create a wig, the ventilation and knotting process is crucial. This involves meticulously hand-tying individual strands of hair onto a lace or mesh base. The result is a natural-looking wig that can be styled to perfection.


So there you have it, now you know how wigs are made!

From the selection of materials to the intricate process of ventilation and knotting, every step is carried out with precision and attention to detail.

Quality control ensures that only the finest wigs make their way to packaging and distribution.

And let’s not forget the ethical considerations, with sustainable practices becoming increasingly important in the world of wig production.

Wigs truly play a significant role in fashion, culture, and medical contexts, and now you have a deeper understanding of the craftsmanship behind them.


Swarnali Ghosh

Swarnali Ghosh is the Co-Founder at AWE Hair International, a revolutionary beauty brand that has transformed the haircare industry. Her expertise in hair care is built on a foundation of extensive knowledge, hands-on experience, and a relentless pursuit of excellence. Swarnali honed her expertise in cosmetology, delving into the nuances of hair textures, scalp health, and the impact of various ingredients on hair health. Her insightful writings on haircare trends have been featured in leading beauty publications like,, and many more.